Nano-sized bubbles are very difficult to detect and measure. We have in our lab the most advanced instruments to measure the size distribution, concentration (counting the number of bubbles) and the buoyant mass to distinguish between nano-sized gas/particles. By combining the data obtained from these different measurement modalities, we are now able to estimate the size distribution and characteristics of the bubbles with great accuracy. Our bubble measurement team have created a huge database related to which materials can be “bubblized” to form ultra-fine bubbles as well as the optimal condition, gas type or solution that lead to longer bubble life span. Through our intense research over the years, we discovered the stability of ultra-fine bubbles, together with their high surface area per volume, that can carry specific pharmaceutical materials in the gas-liquid interfaces. Our understanding so far is that unlike micro-bubbles, ultra-fine bubbles do not necessarily need “hard shells” to support their structure thus theoretically, a wide range of soluble drugs can be “bubblized” to some degree to induce beneficial effects within the human body.
NanoSight System which measures and tracks the Brownian movements to calculate the size distribution of ultra-fine bubbles (Malvern Panalytical).
Archimedes is a high-performance system which uses resonant mass measurement in order to detect and count nanoparticle mass and size (Malvern Panalytical).
The CytoFLEX flow cytometer utilizes Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) with short wave length lasers to detect and count nanobubbles (Beckman Coulter).